the first settlement at Jamestown in 1607 early America's colonies
enjoyed a slow but steady growth. Most of the colonies' population
---approximately 2,500,000 by 1775--- lived east of the Allegheny
the colonists were English or of English descent. Nearly all
spoke English. Second in numbers were the Germans in Pennsylvania,
the Dutch in New York, and the Irish and Scotch-Irish who had
settled to some extent throughout all of the colonies.
original thirteen colonies were Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia,
Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and
Fifth Class Links
- It's History and People
Tour of the Plymouth Plantation
The Jamestown Adventure
Nat Geo Jamestown
History of Jamestown
The Colony At Roanoke
The Lost Colony of Roanoke
Wikipedia Santa Elena
Quebec Early History
Since many continental explorations began in the region, Quebec has
been called the cradle of Canada. In 1534, Jacques Cartier planted
a cross on the Gaspé and the following year he sailed up the
St. Lawrence. In 1608, Samuel de Champlain built a trading post on
the site of the present-day Quebec city, and from this and subsequent
settlements Catholic missionaries, explorers, and fur traders penetrated
the North American continent. The activities of private fur-trading
companies ended, for a time, in 1663 when Louis XIV made the region,
then known as New France, a royal colony and chose Jean Baptiste Talon
to be intendant, or administrator.
The long struggle to protect
the colony and the fur trade from the Iroquois (other tribes were
allies of the French) and the British was effectively lost in 1759,
when the British defeated the French on the Plains of Abraham (see
Abraham, Plains of). By the Treaty of Paris of 1763, Great Britain
acquired New France. In an attempt to conciliate the French inhabitants,
the British passed the Quebec Act of 1774, under which the colony
was allowed to continue its semifeudal system of land tenure and to
retain its language, religion, legal system, and customs.
After the American Revolution,
many British Loyalists came to settle in Quebec. By the Constitutional
Act of 1791 the British separated the area west of the Ottawa River
and created the colony of Upper Canada (now Ontario) there. Quebec
became known as Lower Canada, and in 1791 the first elective assembly
History of Montreal
A stockaded Native American village, Hochelaga, was found on the site
(1535) by Cartier, and the island was visited in 1603 by Champlain,
but it was not settled by the French until 1642, when a band of priests,
nuns, and settlers under Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve, founded
the Ville Marie de Montréal. The settlement grew to become
an important center of the fur trade and the starting point for the
western expeditions of Jolliet, Marquette, La Salle, Vérendrye,
and Duluth. It was fortified in 1725 and remained in French possession
until 1760, when Vaudreuil de Cavagnal surrendered it to British forces
under Amherst. Americans under Richard Montgomery occupied it briefly
(1775–76) during the American Revolution.
Fort Caroline, settlement near
the mouth of the St. Johns River, NE Fla.; est. 1564 by French Huguenots
under René de Laudonnière. A Spanish force led by Pedro
Menéndez de Avilés attacked the fort in 1565, killed
most of the colonists, and renamed the fort San Mateo. This was avenged
by a French force led by Dominique de Gourgues, who in 1568 wiped
out the garrison at San Mateo.
Fort Orange NY
A Brief History
Henry Hudson, with the support of 18 crew members on the small ship
Half Moon, was the first explorer to venture up the 'River" from
Manhattan. Commissioned by the Dutch East India Company in 1609 to report
on the new world, Hudson told of the magnificent river, and the bounty
of Albany, then known as Fort Orange.
The Dutch ignored Hudson's observations
until 1613, when the East India Company sent five more vessels on Hudson's
course. This time, the aggressive explorers set about gathering proof
of the region's assets, mostly in the form of impressive furs.
In 1621 the Dutch established the
colony of New Netherland, with the intent of developing trading posts
in Manhattan, and in Albany. A few years later 18 French Huguenot families,
along with soldiers and traders, settled in Fort
Fort Orange remained in Dutch control,
with nearly 10,000 settlers, until 1664 when the English sailed over
in four warships. They easily took control of Manhattan, and then ventured
up the river to capture Fort Orange for
"His Majesty". Fort Orange was renamed to honor the Duke of
Albany, and in 1686 the British granted Albany a founding charter as
in New Amsterdam in the 17th Century
Nieuw Amsterdam to New York
St. Augustine Wikipedia
History of St. Augustine
Dutch settlement at the mouth of the Hudson River and on the southern
end of Manhattan island; est. 1624. It was the capital of the colony
of New Netherland from 1626 to 1664, when it was captured by the British
and renamed New York.
(1607) - Established
by the London Company
- Originally settled by the Dutch, but seized by the English
(1620) - Founded
as two colonies: Plymouth Colony (1620), settled by the Pilgrims;
and Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630), settled by the Puritans.
They were united in 1691, and annexed Maine, which had been
colonized by the New England Council in the 1620's.
- Originally part of Maine, then a colony from 1629 until annexed
by Massachusetts, 1641-1643. Became a separate colony again
(1623) - Originally
settled by Dutch and Swedes. Came under English control in the
1664 and was granted to William Penn by Charles II in 1681.
- Founded as New Netherland by the Dutch West India Company.
Seized by the English in 1664 and renamed.
(1634) - Granted
to Lord Baltimore.
(1635) - Founded
by settlers from Massachusetts and other colonies. New Haven
Colony, founded by settlers from Massachusetts in 1638, annexed
to Connecticut in 1662, when the older colony was granted a
- Settled by two groups from Massachusetts and united in 1644.
Chartered by King Charles II in 1663.
(1638) - Settled
by Swedes; seized by the Dutch in 1655 and by the English in
1664. Granted to William Penn in 1682.
- Settled by pioneers from other colonies. Carolina was separated
from Virginia and granted to a private company in 1663; divided
into two colonies in 1711. Made a royal providence in 1729.
- Originally part of Carolina Colony. Was separated from North
Carolina in 1711, and became a royal providence in 1729.
(1733) - Granted
to a private company by George II in 1732 and settled a year
later in Savannah.